Building Diverse Design Teams To Drive Innovation
There has been a surge of conversations about the tech industry lacking diversity. Companies are therefore encountering barriers in innovation. Technology faces inequality as consequence of having limited perspective in the design and product development process. We live in a challenged political and socio-economic state, it is time to change. How do you go about building diverse design teams to drive innovation?
Design’s role in is becoming more about hitting business goals and creating value for users. Therefore, the need to build teams with diverse perspectives is imperative. Design solves problems in product and experience and is important to closing social divides and create inclusive communities.
Creating a team who can work well together across different disciplines can be hard. Rachel Andrew solicits some suggestions from the speakers at our upcoming SmashingConf in Toronto.
What Is Diversity And Why Is Building Diverse Design Teams Important?
Diversity is in perspectives and values, which are influenced by inherit traits (such as ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation) acquired traits that are gained from various life experiences (cultural influences, education, social circle, etc.). A combination of traits shape people’s identity and the way they think.
In particular, conflicts and adversities experienced by people have a significant influence on how they develop their values. The more an individual has stepped outside their comfort zone, the more unique of a perspective they bring to the table and an expanded capacity to be compassionate towards others.
Diversity is important because it directly affects long-term success, innovation, and growth. Advantages of working on a diverse team include increased collaboration, effective communication, well-rounded sets of skills represented, less susceptible to complacency, and active efforts for inclusivity are made earlier in the process.
What Is The Competing Values Framework and How Does it Help in Building Diverse Design Teams?
The positive correlation between diversity and innovation are undeniable. So how exactly does it work? Having differing and oftentimes clashing perspectives on a team seems to hinder progress rather than drive it. But with the right balance of values, this dynamic is extremely advantageous. Design, as a problem-solving discipline, uses insights to drive innovation, which can only manifest between differences, not commonalities. Different perspectives and values highlight blind spots and challenge implicit biases.
This is illustrated in the Competing Values Framework, a robust blueprint that was devised by Quinn and Rohrbaugh, based on researching qualities of companies that have sustainably produced a steady stream of innovative solutions over the years. This model for organizational effectiveness shows how different perspectives translate into business values, as well as show where their weaknesses are. The Competing Values Framework is a great tool when building diverse design teams.
The CVF can help you build teams that are optimized for any goal. (Image source)
Those in the Collaborate quadrant are committed to cooperating together based on shared values. They foster trust with each other and with their audience through compassion and empathy. Their priorities are long-term growth of communities and commit to learning and mentoring. While a sense of unity might help a team be more purpose-driven, this can discourage individuals who think differently to bring new ideas to the table because they are averse to taking risks. People here also lose sight of the realities of constraints because they look too far ahead.
While most people are hesitant to change and innovation, those in this quadrant embrace it. They’re extremely flexible with a shifting landscape of user and business goals and aren’t afraid of taking risks. Creatives see risk as an opportunity for growth and embrace different ways of thinking to come up with solutions. Creators create trend rather than follow. In contrast, however, those in this quadrant aren’t as logical and practical with the execution needed to bring ideas to life. Their flexibility can become chaotic and unpredictable. Taking risks can pay off significantly but it’s more detrimental without a foundation.
As the name implies, people here are competitive and focus on high performance and big results. Excellent decision makers that get things done quickly. They know exactly how to utilize resources around them to beat competitors and get to the top of the market. Competitors stay focused on the business objectives of increasing revenue and hitting target metrics. On the other hand, they’re not as broad of a visionary in the long run. Since they prioritize immediate results rather than the human side of company growth.
Team members in this quadrant focus on creating systems that are reliable and efficient. They’re practical and can plan strategically for scaling, and they constantly revisit their design processes to optimize for productivity. They are extremely detail oriented and can identify areas of opportunities in the unexpected. They’re also experts at dealing with multiple moving parts and turn chaos into harmony. But if there are too many Control qualities on a team, they become vulnerable to falling into complacency since they depend on reliable systems. They are averse to taking risks and fear the nature of unpredictability.
Values don’t always neatly fit into categories but this framework is flexible in helping teams identify their strengths and weaknesses. Many individuals have traits that cover more than one quadrant but there are definitely dominant qualities. Being able to identify what they are on an individual level, as well as within a team and at the company level is important.
How Do We Use The CVF When Building Diverse Design Teams?
There are great design processes that takes aspects of the CVF to support the advantages of diverse perspectives. The sprint model, developed by the design partners at Google Ventures, is an excellent workflow that brings together differing values and skill sets to solve problems, with an emphasis on completing it in a short amount of time. IDEO’s design thinking process, also referred to human-centered design, puts users at the forefront and drive decisions with empathy with collaboration being at the core.
The CVF complements many existing design processes to help teams bring their differing perspectives together and design more holistically. In order to do this, teams need to evaluate where they are, how to fit in the company and how well that aligns with their priorities. They should also identify the missing voices and assess areas for improvement. They need to be asking themselves,
What has the team dynamic been like for the past year, level of progress, and what goals (business/user/team) are the most important?
The Competing Values Framework assessment is a practical way to (1) establish the desired organizational outcomes and goals, (2) evaluate the current practices of teams within the organization/company and how they manage workflows, and (3) the individual’s role and how they fit into the context of the team and company.
For example, a team that may not have had many roadblocks and disagreements may represent too much of the Collaborate quadrant and need people who represent more of the Compete quadrant to drive results. A team that has taken risks has had failures, and has dealt with many moving parts (Create) may need people who have characteristics of the Control quadrant for stability and scaling on a practical level to drive results and growth.
If teams can expand by hiring more, they should absolutely onboard more innovators who bring different perspectives and strengths. But teams should also keep in mind that it’s absolutely possible to work with what they already have and can utilize resources at their disposal. Here are some practical ways that teams can increase diversity:
Hire For Diversity
When hiring, it’s important to find people with unique perspectives to complement existing designers and stakeholders. Writing inclusive job descriptions to attract a wider range of candidates makes a big difference. Involving people from all levels and backgrounds within the company who are willing to embrace new perspectives is essential. Hiring managers should ask thoughtful questions to gage how well candidates exercise their problem-solving skills and empathy in real-life business cases. Not making assumptions about others, even with something simple like their pronouns, can establish safe work environments and encourage people to be open about their views and values.
Step Outside The Bubble
Whether directly for client work or building team rapport, it’s valuable to get people out of the office to experience life outside of their scope. It’s worthwhile for design teams to interact with users and spend time in their shoes, not only for their own work as UX practitioners but also to help expand their worldview. Teams should be encouraged to learn outside their comfort zone and attend design events to learn from industry experts. Great ideas emerge when people experience things outside their routine and should always get out and learn!
Drive Diversity Initiatives Internally
Hosting in-house hackathons to get teams to interact differently allows designers to expand their skills while learning new approaches to problem solving. It is also an opportunity to work with people from other teams and acquire the skills to adapt quickly. Bringing in outside experts to share their wisdom is a great way for teams to learn new ways of thinking. Some companies, especially larger organizations, have communities based on interests outside of work such as the love for food or interest in outdoors activities. Teaching each other skills through internal workshops is also great.
Foster A Culture Of Appreciation
Some companies have weekly roundtable session where each person on the team shares one thing he or she is appreciative about another person. Not only does this encourage high morale but also empowers teams to produce better work. Allowing teams to be vulnerable with each other and take risks will make a team stronger. This is an excellent way to bond over goals and get teams with differing perspectives together to collaborate.
What Should You Keep In Mind When Building Diverse Design Teams?
Acknowledging that different ideas and values are important. Discrimination and segregation can happen otherwise. Creating a workspace and team dynamic that is open to discussion and challenge existing ideas is crucial. Be open to being challenged, ask questions, respect all ideas. Compromise will be necessary in this process.
When diversity isn’t managed actively, or there is an imbalance of values on a team, several challenges arise:
- Communication barriers — How people say things can be different from how others hear and understand them. Misunderstandings lead to voices not being heard. If open communication is not supported then some will fear speaking up leading to lost opportunities of wisdom that could impact the business. If a culture of openness exists, gold mines of opportunities exists to improve the opportunity within an organization.
- Discrimination and segregation — As teams become more diverse, people can stray away from or avoid others who think differently. This can lead to increased feelings of resentment, leading to segregation and even discrimination. People might be quick to judge one another based on stereotypical references, rather than mustering the courage to understand where they come from.
- Competition over collaboration — Design teams must work collaboratively, when perspectives clash and collaboration not supported, they become competitive against each other rather than have the willingness to work together. It’s important to bring the team back to the main goal.
Embracing different perspectives takes courage but it’s everyone’s responsibility to be mindful of one another. Building diverse design teams pushes people outside their comfort zones and has never been more important than today. Conversations about leveraging differing perspectives should happen as early in the process as possible to limit friction and encourage effective collaboration.
Conclusion And Next Steps in Building Diverse Design Teams
Rather than approach it as an obligation and something with a lot of risk, leaders should see it as a benefit to their company and team’s growth. Roadblocks are a sign of innovation. Challenges create innovation, which leads to greater strength in the team. And only through the existence different perspectives can such challenges emerge. Assessing where the company, teams, and individuals are within the CVF quadrants is a great start and taking steps to building a team with complementing perspectives will be key to driving long-term innovation.
I’d like to personally thank the following contributors for taking their time to providing me with insights on hiring for and building diverse design teams: Samantha Berg, Khanh Lam, Arin Bhowmick, Rob Strati, Shannon O’Brien, Diego Pulido, Nathan Gao, Christopher Taylor Edwards, among many others who engaged in discussions with me on this topic. Thank you for allowing me to take your experiences and being part of facilitating this dialogue on the value of diversity in design.